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Aquifer Storage & Recovery



Final Environmental Impact Report (FEIR)

The Roseville City Council is scheduled to consider certification of the Aquifer Storage and Recovery Final EIR on Wednesday, March 21, 2012 at a regular City Council meeting.  City Council meetings begin at 7:00 PM at 311 Vernon Street, Roseville 95678.  Meeting agendas are subject to change, therefore interested parties should contact the City Clerk at (916) 774-5200, to confirm meeting times and dates.


Draft Environmental Impact Report (DEIR)
A Draft Environmental Impact Report (DEIR) is available for public review for the Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) Project.

Public Review and Comment:
The DEIR is being made available for a 45-day public review period beginning on December 9, 2011 and ending on January 24, 2012.  Copies of the DEIR are available for public review on the City’s website (below) and at the following locations during normal business hours:
 

·         City of Roseville Permit Center at 311 Vernon Street, Roseville, CA 95678
·         Roseville Main library located at 225 Taylor Street, Roseville, CA 95678
·         Maidu Branch Library located at 1530 Maidu Drive, Roseville, CA 95661
·         Martha Riley Library located at 1501 Pleasant Grove Blvd, Roseville, CA 95747

The City of Roseville will convene an informational public workshop, and a public hearing to accept comment on the adequacy of the environmental document:

Public Information Workshop
January 12, 2012 - 4:00 PM
An informational workshop on the ASR DEIR will be held at 4:00 p.m. at the Roseville Utility Exploration Center, 1501 Pleasant Grove Boulevard, Roseville, CA
(916) 746-1550.

Public Utilities Commission Meeting
January 24, 2012 - 7:00 PM
 A public hearing will be held to review and receive comments on the ASR DEIR during a regularly scheduled meeting of the City of Roseville Public Utilities Commission, at 7 p.m. in the City Council Chambers located at 311 Vernon Street, Roseville, CA.

Written comments on the DEIR should be submitted to: Terri Shirhall, Administrative Analyst, Environmental Utilities Department, 2005 Hilltop Circle, Roseville, CA 95747

In early 2012 the final EIR and project will be presented to the Roseville City Council to consider EIR certification and project approval. Public Utility Commission and City Council meetings begin at 7:00 P.M. in the City of Roseville Council Chambers located at 311 Vernon Street, Roseville CA.  Interested parties should check with the City Clerk to confirm meeting times and dates.  Questions regarding the ASR project may be directed to: Cathy Lee, Sr. Engineer, Environmental Utilities Department, (916)774-5750.

Cover and Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction
Chapter 2 Project Description
Chapter 3 Summary of Impacts and Mitigation Measures
Chapter 4 Environmental Setting, Impacts and Mitigation Measures
Chapter 5 CEQA Considerations
Chapter 6 Alternatives Analysis

Appendix A
Appendix B
Appendix C
Appendix D
Appendix E
Appendix F

1/13/12:
Several cross-reference errors have been identified in the Aquifer Storage and Recovery Program Draft Environmental Impact Report, primarily in the Summary Table.  These have been corrected and changes are notated in underline/strikeout text. Errata pages are provided below

Final Table 3-1
Page 4-25 Final
Page 4-47 Final
Page 4-48 Final





EIR Schedule Update (August 18, 2010) 

The Draft Environmental Impact Report is anticipated for release in late Winter 2011.

Update (July 1, 2009) 

Notice of Preparation of an Environmental Impact Report and Scoping Meetings

The City of Roseville is proposing to implement a citywide Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) program to maintain groundwater as a sustainable resource, improve the City’s water supply reliability, and meet regional conjunctive use program goals. ASR is a process where surface water supply is injected by specially designed groundwater wells into the groundwater aquifer for storage and then later recovered for municipal use.
The City is the CEQA Lead Agency and will prepare a Focused Environmental Impact Report (EIR) for the project identified above. The CEQA Notice of Preparation and corresponding Initial Study are available by clicking  here.  


Background on Aquifer Storage and Recovery Program and the Diamond Creek Well - Updated January 2, 2008

ASR overview

Common to Southern California, Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) is a process where water is injected to a groundwater aquifer via a water well, then recovered through pumping water out of the aquifer. ASR wells are used to store large amounts of water for future use.

The history of ASR in Roseville

In 2003, the City of Roseville conducted a pilot project to test ASR at the well site located at Leonard Duke Davis Park. Following the testing completed in the summer of 2004, city staff worked cooperatively with other Sacramento area water purveyors to assemble information that would assist state regulatory agencies as they developed a regulatory framework specifically designed for ASR projects.

In August 2005 state regulators approved a waiver for a two-year program based on the proposed regulatory framework.

The City of Roseville's ASR program is currently a demonstration-level project conducted in partnership with the California Department of Water Resources and the Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board.

Last year, the City of Roseville injected more than 250 million gallons (767 acre feet) of drinking water into an aquifer located under the area occupied in and around Leonard Duke Davis Park. Since July 17, 2007 this water has been extracted from the aquifer and delivered to customers in the service area containing the well. This is expected to continue through February 2008

Information collected during this demonstration phase will assist the City in determining the effects of injecting/extracting water and how to implement a fully operational ASR program.

How we conducted neighborhood outreach

The City of Roseville direct mailed invitations, in early February 2007, to a neighborhood workshop to approximately 700 households around the vicinity of the well. Additionally, the invitation was also sent via e-mail by David Larson, representative of the Blues Oaks Neighborhood Association via his private e-mail distribution list.

The neighborhood workshop was held on Monday, February 26, 2007 from 4:30 p.m. to 7 p.m at the Diamond Creek Elementary School multipurpose room. The event was geared to provide additional information about the program, provide a water sampling bar, display water cycle artwork of the school's students, and debut a video clip about the program by California¡¦s Gold host Huell Howser.

Additionally, in the summer of 2007, the City initiated an online survey tool that was accessible to neighbors near the Diamond Creek Well. This survey tool has allowed city engineers to determine changes in taste and smell over time. Feedback early in the survey, prompted city engineers to adjust chlorine levels in the water which helped to diminish smell and taste impacts for a period of time. With data collected in the survey, field staff also were able to interact with customers and have an overall context to assess specific taste, smell and hardness observations by our customers.

Where we are today with ASR

After injecting water into the aquifer from December 2005 to May 2006, the City of Roseville began extracting drinking water from the well and began delivering it to Roseville water customers beginning in July 2007. This extraction was done in accordance with the regulatory requirements placed on the city¡¦s use permit. We anticipate continuing to extract water from the well through February 2008. Water extracted from the ASR well meets all state and federal drinking water standards.

The future of ASR in Roseville

The data collected during the test program will help the city design the permanent ASR Program. Implementation of this program is consistent with the long term strategy laid out in the city's Urban Water Management Plan, with reliance on groundwater supplies when surface water supplies are not available. It is anticipated that ASR can help preserve the integrity of the groundwater basin.

The long term goal of Roseville¡¦s ASR Program is to implement a full-scale project of up to 12 wells, capable of injecting 10,000 acre-feet of water per year. One acre-foot is about 326,000 gallons of water, roughly a year's supply for one household. An acre-foot of water would cover a football field with water one foot deep.

Once the program is fully implemented the ASR wells would help meet operational needs to ensure that water reliability of the system is maintained. This could mean operation of the well even during wet or normal years. In dry years or in a drought situation, the City would employ the well to ensure that the city's water supply is reliable.

A fully implemented ASR program will allow Roseville to prepare for the future by banking water during times of plenty and extracting water during drought conditions. By providing a "water savings account,¨ Roseville is literally saving for a non-rainy day.

Data on Diamond Creek Well water served to customers

General Information

As of December 2007, over 150% of the original volume of water that the City of Roseville injected into the well has been extracted. Under the permit from the state, the City of Roseville is required to extract 300% of the original volume injected into the well. From the water qualities the City of Roseville tested for and based on the hydrogeology of the aquifer, the water that we pumped is more characteristic of groundwater than of the surface water injected.

Groundwater may taste different than the surface water. However it is safe for human consumption and meets all water quality and health standards. The City also conducts regular sampling to ensure the water continues to be safe for drinking and household uses.

Groundwater is an important water resource in California. Two-thirds of the Californians along with half of all Americans (more than 95 percent for rural Americans) get their household water supplied from groundwater (Environmental Protection Agency, Citizen's Guide to Ground-Water protection, 1990). Groundwater is rain and snow that soaks through the ground and continues to move downward through pore (small openings) space in the soil until it reaches the aquifer under the city.

With percolation through the ground, groundwater dissolves the minerals from the surrounding geology. Because of this higher concentration of minerals, groundwater is harder than surface water. The most noticeable effect from groundwater is the water spots it leaves behind. As the water dries (evaporates), the mineral content is left behind, creating "spots¨ on surfaces. This mineral deposit is generally a mixture of calcium and magnesium deposits. Although it may not be aesthetically pleasing to some customers, these hard water deposits are not harmful.

Hardness

The hardness of water is referred to by grains per gallon or milligrams per liter (mg/L) which is also known as parts per million (ppm). Based on a classification system by the U.S. Department of Interior, the scale of water hardness is:

Grains per gallon

Milligrams per liter (mg/L)

or Parts per million (ppm)

Classification
Less than 1.0 Less than 17.1 Soft
1.0 - 3.5 17.1 - 60 Slightly Hard
3.5 - 7.0 60 - 120 Moderately Hard
7.0 - 10-5 120 - 180 Hard
Over 10.5 Over 180 Very Hard

Often, home appliances have recommended settings for soap or detergent use based on the water hardness. The table below provides the range of "hardness" of water delivered to your home from the Diamond Creek Well:

Diamond Creek Well Hardness Scale
Grains per gallon

Milligrams per liter (mg/L)

or Parts per million (ppm)

Classification
6.4 - 7.8 110 - 134 Moderately Hard - Hard

By comparison, water from the Roseville Water Treatment Plant historically delivered to the service area has a hardness of 30 mg/l.

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) establishes standards for drinking water which fall into two categories: Primary Standards and Secondary Standards. Primary Standards are based on health considerations and Secondary Standards are based on aesthetics such as taste, odor, color, or corrosivity. There is no Primary or Secondary standard for water hardness.

Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)

Dissolved solids refer to any minerals, salts, metals, cations (positively charged), or anions (negative charged) dissolved in water. Total dissolved solids (TDS) comprise inorganic salts, mainly calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, bicarbonates, chlorides, and sulfates. In general the total dissolved solids concentration is the sum of the cations and anions together. Therefore, the test does not provide the City insight into the water quality issues such as hardness, salty taste, or corrosiveness, except as an indicator to determine the general quality of the water. The following table is a generalization of the relation of TDS to water quality problems:

Cations combined with carbonates:

CaCO3 (calcium carbonate)
MgCO3 (magnesium carbonate)

Associated with hardness, scale formation (ring around the fixtures), bitter taste
Cations combined with chlorides:

NaCl l(sodium chloride, regular salt)
KCl (potassium chloride)

Salty or brackish taste, increased corrosivity

An elevated total dissolved solids concentration does not mean that the water is a health hazard, but it does mean the water may have aesthetic problems or cause nuisance problems. In California, elevated TDS has been due to natural environment feature such as mineral springs, carbonate deposits, salt deposits, and sea water intrusion in coastal areas.

The natural TDS in the groundwater aquifer beneath the Diamond Creek Well ranges from 430 mg/L to 470 mg/L. However with the addition of surface water, which is low in TDS, there is a slight dilution effect. The TDS levels from the Diamond Creek Well range from 265 mg/L to 434 mg/L. As the majority amount of injected surface water is pumped out, the TDS will likely resemble that of a groundwater. By comparison, water from the Roseville Water Treatment Plant historically delivered to the service area has a TDS of 50 mg/l.

For aesthetic purpose, State regulation recommended a maximum TDS level of 500 mg/L with an upper limit of 1,000 mg/L.

Temperature

During the winter time of the year, the water coming into the house may be colder than the temperature inside the house. Cold water holds more oxygen than warm water. Therefore, when the cold water from the water mains outside coming into a warm house, the water begins to warm and the oxygen has to escape. It does so by bubbling out in air bubbles which makes the water look milky or opaque.

Groundwater is protected from ambient temperature fluctuations so it tends to be warmer than surface water. Generally, treated surface water ranges between 15 and 16 C in the winter time and up to 20 C in the summer while groundwater temperature is more constant maintaining around 21 C.

FAQ's

Why does the water taste or smell different?

The water pumped from the Diamond Creek Well is groundwater which, naturally, contains higher dissolved minerals content. Since this is a change from the surface water from Folsom Lake, the taste is more noticeable in comparison. The water now does not contain any more harmful chemicals than Folsom Lake water. Despite its taste or smell, it is safe to drink and to cook with.

Why does the water leave water spots, a scum in the bottom of drinking glass, or a ring in the toilet bowl?

Groundwater has a higher mineral content and is "hard¨ compare to surface water. As the water dries (evaporates), it leaves the minerals behind. This mineral deposit is the water spots. The minerals and soap also combine to form soap scum, and as it dries, a "bathtub ring" or toilet ring forms.

Why does the water make my skin itchy?

There are no indications that the hard water contributes to skin diseases. However, compared to surface water more soap is typically needed to form the same amount of lather. The increased amount of soap may be causing the itchiness.

Sometimes ice cubes made from the tap water, or the melted water from ice cubes contains white particles. What are these particles and where do they come from?

Ice cubes freeze from the outside in. Ice is formed from pure water (hydrogen and oxygen) therefore the minerals such as calcium and magnesium normally found in the water sometimes end up as visible particulates in the core of the ice cube. The white particles are not toxic.

What is the residue sometimes found on items such as coffee pots, irons, shower doors, glassware, and cookware?

The white residues are minerals that are found in the water such as calcium. Over time and repeated water use there may be a build-up of the minerals on any item the water comes in contact with. There are commercial products that can be purchased to rid the surface of mineral build-up.

Can the City of Roseville recommend any commercial cleaners or agents that will help remove water spots?

The City of Roseville cannot recommend or endorse any commercial cleaning product for removing water spots. Individual homeowners need to research and purchase commercial cleaners that best meet the needs of the surface.

Is it okay to use water from the water tap for drinking, cooking, or making baby formula?

The water provided by the City of Roseville is safe for drinking, cooking, and making baby formula. A connection to the City's water system guarantees this safety. City's water meets all state and federal drinking water standards.

Is the amount of chemicals found in the drinking water harmful?

No. In fact some chemicals like fluoride are added to the drinking water to directly benefit our consumers. Minerals may also be beneficial and many chemicals have no adverse effects on public health.

Is water with chlorine in it safe to drink?

Chlorine is an important disinfectant in water to ensure no harmful bacteria is growing in the water. Testing has proven that the amount of chlorinated disinfectants found in drinking water is safe to drink. The amount of chlorine in the water produced by the Diamond Creek Well water is the same as the amount of chlorine in the surface water. City personnel check the chlorine levels weekly both at the well site and the distribution system. There are also analyzers within the well site to ensure proper amount of chlorine is added.

Is the fluoride in my drinking water safe?

The City adds fluoride to water to improve dental health. The concentration of fluoride is between 0.7 to 1.0 mg/L. This total fluoride concentration takes into account the naturally occurring fluoride in the groundwater and is adjusted and checked daily.


Additional Information - Updated as of July 30, 2007
On Tuesday, July 17, 2007, Diamond Creek Well was put into operation and the water pumped from the well was served to the City's customers. The operation of Diamond Creek Well is important because it will provide added water reliability to Roseville's customers in the face of droughts and other water supply challenges facing California. This innovative technology stores treated Folsom Lake water into the ground for retrieval at a later date when the water is needed. Over time the surface water blends with the groundwater but is still safe for domestic uses. The well water meets all water quality and health standards just like treated surface water. Well water does have aesthetic difference and sometimes is noticeable to some consumers. The main differences in the water qualities are total dissolved solids (TDS) or hardness, pH, alkalinity, fluoride, chlorine, sodium, and temperature. Each element is discussed in detail below.

On Tuesday, July 17, 2007, Diamond Creek Well was put into operation and the water pumped from the well was served to the City's customers. The operation of Diamond Creek Well is important because it will provide added water reliability to Roseville's customers in the face of droughts and other water supply challenges facing California. This innovative technology stores treated Folsom Lake water into the ground for retrieval at a later date when the water is needed. Over time the surface water blends with the groundwater but is still safe for domestic uses. The well water meets all water quality and health standards just like treated surface water. Well water does have aesthetic difference and sometimes is noticeable to some consumers. The main differences in the water qualities are total dissolved solids (TDS) or hardness, pH, alkalinity, fluoride, chlorine, sodium, and temperature. Each element is discussed in detail below.

TDS/Hardness
Surface water from Folsom Lake is very "soft¨ with a total dissolved solids content about 50 mg/L (parts per million, ppm). This translates to a hardness about 28 mg/L (1.6 grains). Groundwater is harder due to its mineral content. The water from Diamond Creek Well has a total dissolved content between 410 to 425 mg/L. This translates to a hardness of 150 mg/L, approximately. This is a significant increase and may be noticeable to some consumers. For aesthetic purposes, State regulations recommended a maximum TDS level of 500 mg/L with an upper limit of 1,000 mg/L.

pH
Typically the treated surface water has a pH about 8.6 (with a range of 8.3 to 9.0). The pH of groundwater is about 7.2. Because the high mineral content in the groundwater, the water from the Diamond Creek Well is less corrosive so no additional corrosion protection treatment is necessary. Surface water tends to be more corrosive so lime is added to bring up the pH for corrosion protection.

Alkalinity
Alkalinity is a measure of the capacity of water to neutralize acids. Alkaline compounds in the water such as bicarbonates (baking soda is one type), carbonates, and hydroxides remove hydrogen ions and lower the acidity of the water. Surface water has lower alkalinity, hence more hydrogen ion is present in the water without corrosion treatment. Alkalinity for the treated surface water is 27 mg/L while the groundwater typically contains 60 mg/L.

Fluoride
Fluoride is present in very low amounts and sometimes undetectable amount in all natural waters. To assist in dental health protection, the City adds fluoride to an optimum level of 0.8 mg/L. Naturally, the groundwater contains 0.2 - 0.3 mg/L of fluoride in the background. The City adds additional fluoride to boost the water to 0.8 mg/L for dental health. The fluoride is added through careful control of the well operation to ensure the proper dosage of fluoride.

Chlorine
Chlorine is added as a disinfectant to ensure there is no bacteriological growth in the water. Chlorine level in the surface water near Diamond Creek Well is between 0.5 - 0.7 ppm. Water pumped out of the well has little (0.02 ppm) to no chlorine. To ensure public health and safety, chlorine is added to the water to the same level as treated surface water.

Sodium
Sodium is also naturally present in all waters from runoff, leaching, and natural deposits. Surface water has less contact with the earth so it contains less sodium while groundwater seeps through the ground so it has a higher concentration of sodium. The City¡¦s average for surface water is 3.6 mg/L while the groundwater has an average of 74 mg/L. This elevated sodium level may also be noticeable to some consumers. The sodium level present in the water is safe for domestic consumption.

Temperature
Surface water from Folsom Lake is snow melt from the Sierras so it has a low temperature. Groundwater is protected from temperature fluctuations so it tends to be warmer than surface water. Generally, treated surface water ranges between 59 and 60.8 degrees in the winter time and up to 68 degrees in the summer while groundwater temperature is more constant maintaining around 69.8 degrees.

Water Comparison Chart

Surface Water
(mg/L)

Groundwater
(mg/L)

Hardness 28 150
Total Dissolved Solids 50 410 - 425
pH 8.6 units 7.2 units
Alkalinity 27 60
Fluoride (natural) N/A 0.2 - 0.3
Fluoride (added) 0.8 0.8
Chlorine (added) 0.5 0.5
Temperature 62.6 - 68.0 F 69.8 F

Potential Diamond Creek Well Influence Area - Click here for map.

Quicklinks

Water Comparison Chart

Map - Diamond Creek Well Influence Area

ASR Cutaway Diagram

2007 Water Progression Map for Diamond Creek Well Water

Survey for customers receiving water from the Diamond Creek Well (Blue Oaks, Sun City, Junction West, Woodcreek Oaks and Quail Glen Neighnorhoods)


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